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Anyone consuming a significant quantity of fresh and raw plant or animal food of high quality and freshness will automatically ingest a generous amount of H-minus ions. Unfortunately, incidence of H- in its primary form as well as the more complex biological compounds (functional hydrides, etc.) which can carry it (NADH, certain vitamins, etc.) is drastically reduced by heating, processing, milling, prolonged exposure to air or prolonged storage.
Additionally, anyone consuming relatively fresh, and unheated and untreated (and unfiltered) water from any of the following sources may also consume a significant amount of H- ions in the primary form:
There are dozens of Japanese and Korean companies making small white kitchen countertop appliances which hook up, much like a countertop water filter, to the kitchen faucet, and produce alkaline water (ERW) via electrolysis. The machines run from about $600 to about $3,000 (US) retail. Almost all of these machines produce an ERW which is of low to medium strength, with an ORP (oxidation reduction potential) of about -150 to -240 (the ORP is the best single simple indicator of strength, the more negative the stronger the antioxidant properties), and a pH of about 9.2. The alkaline pH is an accidental by-product, and not responsible for the health benefits, although for a person who is very acidic, the alkalinity may help some. Overall, ORP is the best (easily available and cheap) indicator or corollary for the presence of the H- ion: the more strongly negative the ORP, the greater amount of hydrogen and the H- ion (antioxidant), in general. In reality, even the ORP is only a corollary of the presence of the H- ion, and not a direct measure. Since these devices hook up to the kitchen faucet, they are know as flow-thru devices. Now, the strength of the water from these flow-thru devices hooked up to filtered tap water (or unfiltered well water) is fairly weak, but still has good health benefits. If one wants much stronger water, with a much higher concentration of H and H-, then they will be interested in a batch device, described below.
There is another class of countertop machines, and these run in batch mode, producing (depending upon the size of the machine) from 24 oz. to 0.6 gal. of ERW every 15 minutes; these devices retail from $1,100 to about $5,000 (most around $1,950). These machines have adjustable batch process timers, and if you run them for the full 15 minutes, with a tiny amount of salt added to the water to improve conductivity, the ORP of the final ERW is about -830. Since ORP is a semi-logarithmic scale, an ORP of -830 is an indicator that the quantity of H- ions is incredibly more than in ERW with an ORP of -200 (over a million-fold).
to buy a batch mode device,
do NOT purchase one of the cheap pitcher-type devices -- they all use
stainless steel or ceramic electrodes, neither of which I
I strongly prefer titanium electrodes or platinum-coated titanium
-- see Sources section below!
quality, the ORP electrode
an all ORP meters will degrade with use, and the readings will tend to
regress toward the region of +350. In other words, when this
measurements on water with a strongly negative ORP such as -830 mv will
result in mediocre readings of about -100 or even +100, and readings on
strongly oxidizing water (e.g.,+1,100 mv ORP) will also regress toward
+350. Luckily, this dulling of sensitivity is simply due to
("ion migration") of the insulator on the center reference electrode,
can be reversed by soaking the electrode for 20 to 30 minutes in the
oxidizing water produced by the other pole of the ionizer.
draw out and neutralize most of the contaminating ions. There is
an even better neutralizing compound made from potassium iodide and
but that is a bit beyond the reach of the average household user of ORP
batch type device, it is extremely
important NOT to use the vast quantity of salt added to the water which
the manufacturers recommend for production of oxidizing (acid) water
commercial use. Rather, use far less, and add only a good
sea salt at only the rate of 0.1 gram per liter, which is about 0.35
per gallon. I mix my tap water (mountain well water) with
in a one-gallon plastic jug (much like a milk jug or the type of jug in
which spring water is sold.)
purchase a good batch-type
device (can make much more powerful water), I recommend the Super Oxide
Mini (24 ounces per batch, for about $1200) or the Super Oxide Labo (70
ounces per batch, about $1995) from Ion and Light in San Francisco.
devices have only
titanium electrodes and are of the highest quality. By the
batch machines have the word "oxide" in the name because the primary
for which they are designed (hospitals, clinics, plant nurseries) is
which uses the acid oxidized water rather than the alkaline reduced
(in fact, these users discard the alkaline water!) I own one
but I usually use the Labo, because it makes more water in one batch.
2012 update: Ion & Light are no longer in
Non-Electrolytic Means of Producing Reduced Water (RW)
Now, a teaser: there are actually NUMEROUS other ways of creating H-minus ions in water, and without electricity/electrolysis, and often without the artificial corollary of high alkalinity as well. These methods yield water commonly referred to as "reduced water", or RW. However, many of these methods really cannot get the H-minus concentration to a place where the resultant ORP is much stronger than -300 mv. There are a few that can go much further.
For a brief tutorial on the Relative Hydrogen Score, or rH score, please see the on-site page devoted to that topic! rH score is an absolute measure of hydrogen reducing power (and of oxidizing power) which is independent of changes in pH, and which is calculated from measures of ORP and pH.
Further Notes on Water Ionizers, Filtration, and Ultra-Strong Electrolyzed Reduced Water -- This on-site informational article offers further notes on countertop water ionizers, filtration of water in the ionizers, and consumption of alkaline or reduced electrolyzed water, including consumption of ultra-strong electrolyzed reduced water with an ORP stronger than -600 mv, and, in many cases, with an ORP stronger than -790 mv.
you want to
get even more in-depth information
on ERW and making it, especially in home-brew devices, than this page
I recommend first finishing this page, and then going to the page
Thoughts and Observations on Production of H-minus Ion Enriched-Water
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