The Negative Hydrogen Ion, 
aka Hydride Ion or Active Hydrogen

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The negative hydrogen ion, also called the hydride ion, was until recently considered to be primarily the province of plasma physicists.  This form of hydrogen, where the atom bears an extra electron (thus giving it a negative charge and creating a negative ion) was thought to be extremely short-lived on the surface of the earth at standard pressures and temperatures (STP), and rather, it was considered to primarily exist, at least for any lifetime beyond a few nanoseconds, in plasmas in the laboratory and in the interior of stars (including our sun.)  For those who may have just done a double-take, and may now be wondering exactly what a plasma is, a plasma is essentially a very hot gas which emits a glow.  The gas may be heated by ionizing radiation and radiative transfer (imagine the heat emanating from a hot iron), as in the outer atmosphere of a star, or it may be heated by a flow of electric current through it (think here of sparks or arcs, or a corona discharge), as in a fluorescent bulb.

My Mission in Presenting This Site

 My mission in presenting this site (it has been on the air since about 10/2000) is to offer an educational and balanced, decidedly  non-missionary introduction to primeval antioxidants.  You will find no fanaticism, no rigidity, no over-zealousness on these pages, and no judgments of people or diets which do not conform any diets mentioned here, although you may find some ample -- and sometimes silly or crazy -- humor.   Please enjoy this site; feel free to explore it fully! I firmly believe that there is no place for fanaticism, fundamentalism, sanctimoniousness or rigidity in nutrition, health, science, diet or lifestyle. 

My background?  I have had a number of careers over my lifetime.  I have an undergraduate degree in Psychology, a strong undergraduate background in electronics engineering and astrophysics as well, graduate-level background in clinical psychology and the health sciences, graduate background in acupuncture (Five Elements, Worsley method) and a broad and deep Master's degree in health and wellness research (health sciences).  I have a strong avocational background in nutrition, antioxidant nutrition, heart-centered meditation, esoteric systems of energy healing, spiritual healing, and all kinds of alternative health research.  I own a small research laboratory devoted to antioxidant nutritional research and to detection of heart-centered coherent rhythms in humans.  To see a more complete "About the Author" page, including my resumes, please click here.  To contact the author, please click here

Vinny Pinto                        last updated November 7, 2002.

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The H-minus ion (another name for this ion) has, in the past ten years, been found to be quite plentiful in the earth's interior and even on the surface of the earth.  Perhaps even more surprisingly, although there have been hints of this phenomenon in the literature of biochemistry since at least 1937, the H-minus ion (or H- ion) also plays a critical role in all known life forms on earth.  It act as both an energy carrier (providing "energy currency") and as an antioxidant in numerous biological systems.  In its antioxidant role, this ion functions as a powerful primal, primitive, primeval, primordial and primary antioxidant found in all raw, unprocessed foods (plant and animal) and in many "wild" unprocessed, untreated water sources in the biosphere (the area around the surface of the planet where life exists.)  Some sources of water which contain the H-minus ion are glacial runoff water, high altitude lakes, wells and springs and some deep wells where the aquifer has been stable over millennia. 

It appears that this tiny and lightweight ion was the original antioxidant for all life forms on earth, and is likely the single most optimal antioxidant for life forms even today.  However, this ion is rather fragile in our biosphere, and it is easily driven off or destroyed by processing, bleaching, blanching, or heat.  It appears that our ancestors likely ingested a significant amount of this ion in their daily food and water intake, while we modern ("civilized") folk often receive very little in our diets. 

This article describes primarily the antioxidant properties of primal (aka primeval) extremely low molecular weight (ELMW) family of antioxidants known as active hydrogen, atomic hydrogen and the negative hydrogen ion (H- ion) -- found in ionized (reduced) alkaline water (also called Electrolyzed Reduced Water or ERW) and in certain nutritional supplement products such as MegaH and Megahydrate.  This page also describes foods and other nutrients (as well as supplements) which contain these same primal ELMW antioxidants.

The negative hydrogen ion has been known to science for about 100 years, if not longer.  Early in the 20th century Karl Langmuir, the luminary and "father" of modern inorganic chemistry, investigated, among other things, the occurrence of atomic hydrogen and the negative hydrogen ion in nature and in a flame, and offered some observations on the degree of dissociation of H2 gas (the stable form) at standard temperature and pressure (STP, often commonly thought of as "room temperature and sea level air pressure") into atomic hydrogen (H or singlet H) and the H- ion as well as higher temperatures.  He observed that the amount of dissociation of H2 to H and H- at STP was incredibly small, and increased drastically as temperature was increased.  It has since been discovered that the occurrence and stability of the H-minus ion on Earth at STP is far more common than Langmuir may have guessed, although it will almost always be found hidden lattices of crystals, loosely bound in structural hydrides, or more tightly bound in chemical (ionic) hydrides or even in organic chemicals (e.g., d-alpha-tocopherol,  NADH)

The negative hydrogen ion appears in the literature (popular, industrial, health-related and scientific) under a variety of names and acronyms; some of the more common ones follow:

      hydride ion

      negative hydrogen ion

      reduced hydrogen

      active hydrogen

      singlet hydrogen

      H-minus ion

      H minus


      H:- ion 

      H- ion

      H - ion  (note superscripted[-])


      H - (note superscripted[-])

      negatively-charged hydrogen ion

      negative H ion

Please note also that in the Japanese-language articles and websites on nutritional antioxidants, they often ascribe the powerful and measurable antioxidant powers in glacial waters, holy waters from sacred healing sites, and in so-called alkaline ionized water (electrolyzed reduced water) to atomic hydrogen or singlet hydrogen instead. However, if you read more closely, you will discover that they tend to use those terms (atomic hydrogen and singlet hydrogen) rather interchangably and malleably with many of the above terms, particularly active hydrogen and reduced hydrogen

In the latter half of the 20th century, it became apparent that the negative hydrogen ion ion was not as rare and short-lived in nature on our planet's surface as once thought.  Indeed, by the 1990s it became apparent the H-minus ion is ubiquitous in the biochemistry of life forms on earth, and essential to certain key biochemical reactions related to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) in living organisms.  By the late 1990's, it became obvious that several common antioxidants found in plants and animals (Vitamin E among them) function as an antioxidant by acting as a transport vessel for the H- ion, donating it at the right time within living systems to neutralize any of several species of oxygen free radicals (oxidizing radicals), also known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurring in tissues or fluids in or around the cells.  It also became generally recognized by the late 1990s that the likely mechanism by which certain key energy-transport molecules in living systems were formed and subsequently regenerated after "being burned" (e.g. NAD conversion to NADH), was via donation of H- to the molecule by a donor molecule, the origins of which ultimately traced back to the energy liberated from sunlight during photosynthesis. 


Hydrogen and its H- ion as Energy Currency in Life Forms

In other words, hydrogen and the H- ion have emerged as the primary energy currency in living systems.  An excellent and simple example is the binary pair NAD and NADH.  NADH is well known as a powerful energy carrier in living systems, and to play a key part in the energy currency of most cells of many life forms, including those of humans, while NAD is its low-energy combustion product.  There are pathways in many organisms, including humans, which can, to a limited extent, recharge the NAD with an H- ion to convert it back to the high energy form of NADH.  Thus the NAD, as the low-energy state, serves as both a precursor to NADH and a combustion product of NADH.  As such, NAD can be visualized as the "ground state", and NADH as the high-energy state.  Indeed, a rather expensive nutritional supplement (ENADA, 40 tablets for about $50) has been available on the health food market for 10 years which supplies NADH in an active yet stable form, and this supplement has been shown in the literature to increase cellular energy levels and to reverse certain chronic diseases, along with some types of dementia, among other positive effects. 

Hydrogen and its H- ion as Energy Currency in Life Forms
The dialog immediately preceding is of great interest, because it might be construed as suggesting that hydrogen, at least the H- ion, might be the primary energy currency of life.  Indeed, closer and deeper examination of the literature shows that this this idea is hardly new.  As early as the 1950's, Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi proposed in a number of articles and books that hydrogen is the true energy currency of life, and is the true "currency" or carrier of energy in photosynthesis.  He stressed that this energy currency may be traced directly back to the sun, or more literally, to the energy contained in sunlight.  This is especially fascinating in light of the discovery of latter 20th century astronomy that much of the sun's atmosphere is composed of the H- ion.  In essence, one can see that hydrogen and its H- ion, located in the sun millions of miles away, donate energy in forms which allow photosynthetic organisms on earth to also liberate the H- ion from compounds which were initially at a lower energy state, and then bind and transport that H- ion as energy currency to support a wide range of life on earth.

Where is the H- ion Found in Nature?

  • The negative hydrogen ion (H- ion) has been observed to occur naturally in our universe in:
    • water and water vapor subjected to ionizing radiation
    • deep aquifer water exposed to hydrogen gas (including H2, H+ion, H-ion, and atomic H) migrating from deposits of H2 at center of Earth (this is partially encompassed under the Hydridic Theory of Geology-- plenty of info available on the web!)
    • water (often deep aquifer or deep lake) exposed to the influence of "reducing" bacteria (e.g., opposite of oxidative decay bacteria) such as phototrophic organisms
    • (high temperature) gas plasmas, such as found in:
        • stellar interiors 
        • flames
        • plasmas and arcs formed by electrical discharge (these may be naturally-occurring or human-made)
    In it's more protected forms, the H-minus ion may be found in rather copious quantities on our planet's surface in the biosphere, at "normal" temperatures and pressures (or STP)  in:
    • high-altitude mountain wells and springs
    • high-altitude glacial runoff streams
    • some deep wells in relatively stable geological formations
    • some sources of moving water in open air (some rivers and creeks, etc.)
    • living life forms such as plant and animals
    Now, for a more in-depth examination of each of the above forms of the H-minus ion as it occurs in the biosphere:

    High-altitude Glaciers

    It is believed that the relatively high incidence and long-term incidence of ionizing radiation from cosmic sources (as well as UV light from the sun on fresh surface layers as they accumulate over eons) produces a relatively high concentration of H-minus ions in many high-latitude glaciers.  It may be that some of the accumulation is also due to other sources as well, such as changing electric and magnetic fields over the eons.  Further, some have postulated that some of the H-minus laden water in glaciers may come from space, via comets which bear ice which has been exposed to the ionizing radiative flux and changing elecric and magnetic fields of deep space.  Since many thousands of tons of new water are added do the earth and it's atmosphere each year due to influx of water-bearing comets and ice particles (much of which ends up as precipitation in the form of rain, snow or sleet), this "space water" can account for a significant percentage of the water incorporated in glaciers over the years.  Incidentally, some "older" water reserves from the Earth and it's atmosphere are continually lost from the earth's atmosphere via evaporative dissipation into space.

    High-altitude Mountain Wells and Springs

    It has been assumed that the reason for the relative abundance of atomic H and H- in high-altitude mountain aquifers is the high incidence of ionizing radiation (aka "cosmic radiation") over many centuries or millennia upon the trapped water, vastly increasing the rate of dissociation of H2 molecules.
    An alternate theory has proposed that the mechanism or H and H- charge/recharge is very different, and that presence of magma pools, or old volcanic vents and ducts under and within most mountains which have volcanic origins can provide pathways to allow H2, H and even H- from deep in the earth to percolate with relative ease to these mountain sites, including any captive aquifers.  

    High-altitude Glacial Runoff Streams

    It appears that some of the H- ion present in such sources may not simply be stored in the commonplace interstitial pseudo-crystal or cluster spaces (cages) in water, but rather also in stable hydride (often colloidal) compounds of silica and other minerals as well.  It has been theorized that these mineral compounds which store the hydride ion act as deeper and more stable reservoirs for transport and eventual release of the H- ion than do water clusters.
    It has been assumed that the reason for the preponderance of atomic H and H- in glacial runoff water is the high incidence of ionizing radiation (aka "cosmic radiation") over many centuries or millennia upon the ice, vastly increasing the rate of dissociation of H2 molecules.

    Some Deep Wells in Relatively Stable Geological Formations

    It is well known that many deep aquifers contain relatively stable, or old, water -- that is, water which has been in place largely undisturbed for many hundreds or thousands of years.  The age of the water, coupled with its depth, is seen as conducive to the "collection" or harvesting  of H2, H and even H-minus as it slowly percolates upward from deep in the interior of the earth.  Scientists have proposed slow action of certain anaerobic or facultative anaerobe bacteria for the high incidence of hydrogen and the relatively strongly reducing ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) in some deep water aquifers.  Actually, the H seepage theory, while it certainly does not rule out the previous mechanism (which has been very well established) may also account for some of this reducing activity. 

    Some Sources of Moving Water

    Some sources of moving water, especially those in open air, such as some rivers and streams, exhibit significant amounts of the H-minus ion.  It appears that at least some of this accretion of H-minus ions is due to the passage of water through gradient electric and magnetic fields due, in part, to the earth's magnetic field, atmospheric and geological electric fields, and fields induced by solar storms and other solar and cosmic phenomena.

    Life Forms such as Plant and Animals

    Photosynthetic plants and other photosynthetic organisms:
    The primary, and likely sole, source of H- in most land-based vascular plants is simply photosynthesis, as noted above; some bacteria, mostly in the phototrophic family, also have this ability.  Many can also liberate H and it's ions even in the absence of light, if they are provided with an ample food source.  The H- ion has been noted to be relatively fragile when stored in both water and biological systems, and much of the content of atomic H and the H- ion of plant and animal tissue disappears upon consistent heating, as might be applied when humans cook and prepare plant and animal foods.

    Land-based and upper sea-based animals:
    Since the ultimate source of the food chain for all land-based animals and animals which inhabit the upper levels of the seas is photosynthetic plant (including algae) life, it is rather obvious that the primary source (notwithstanding some geological sources such as water) of H- in land animals is plant life.

    Szent-Gyorgyi noticed that the H- ion seemed to occur in greater concentration in certain mammalian organs and tissues than in others. Briefly, he reported that the highest concentrations were found in the following tissues (listed in descending order proportional to amount of H-ion present):

      • liver
      • intestine
      • kidney
      • heart
      • lung
      • spleen
      • (muscle)
    Deep-sea organisms and deep-geology organisms:
    One of the minor mysteries of modern biology has been the discovery of a multitude of life forms, often bacterial, which can and do exist in fissures deep within the earth and at the bottom of the deepest seas, often at rather high temperatures and pressures.  Indeed, some of the sea-floor organisms even exist at geothermal vents which spew hot gases or magma.  One of the mysteries here, aside from how the organisms survive the high pressures and high temperatures, has been how these organisms derive energy in the obvious complete absence of sunlight and the absence as well of any obvious organic food sources.  Studies conducted in the 1980s and later showed a high concentration of methane and other "organic" gases (from deep earth deposits) at many of these sites, and it appears that many of these organisms derive their energy by consuming complex hydrocarbons or simple hydrocarbons.  It has also been discovered that many deep sea organisms seem to employ a variety of clathrates in their tissues.  Clathrates are unique compounds which have been found to act as catalysts or facilitators for a wide variety of biochemical reactions, including some involved with the energy currency of the cell.  Further, clathrates can act as "cages" or chelating transporters for several substances. This author has theorized that clathrates may bestow a survival advantage upon deep-sea and deep-geology organisms by helping them to recover H- as energy currency from methane and other hydrocarbons, and perhaps even to scavenge H- directly from non-biological primitive hydrogen (H2, H and even H- ) seepage from deep in the earth.

    H- As An Antioxidant

    H- as an Antioxidant
    Life is a rather delicate balance of oxidative processes and reducing (antioxidant) processes, and almost all scientists and observers agree that most of the time, the balance in most organisms (including humans) is shifted too far in the oxidative direction in our modern era.  This excess oxidative activity results in a surplus of oxygen free radicals (aka reactive oxygen species, or ROS), some of the most common of which are superoxides, peroxides, ozone, and triplet and quadruple oxygens.  As a powerful reducing agent (an electron donor), H- is able to neutralize these radicals easily, often leaving only pure water or simple compounds as the "ash" or residue from the encounter.

    So, aside from its role in the energy currency of living cells, H- is also a primary, primitive, primal and primeval antioxidant, and one could even argue that it is the only primary antioxidant and the only primitive antioxidant.  Why?  Well, it is the only effective antioxidant with powerful effects in living systems which is not formed only in life forms (e.g., green plants), but is also formed easily via purely physical means in the "outside world"; H- is formed easily in water, ice or moisture laden air (water vapor) via exposure to ionizing radiation, an electrical discharge (plasma or spark), or an electrical current in water strong enough to produce electrolysis.  This surely qualifies it as a primitive, primeval and  primal antioxidant, since it pre-dated the existence of life on earth.  Further, the incredibly tiny size of the H- ion, coupled with its extremely small mass qualifies it not only as the lightest and smallest of all known antioxidants, but also the most ubiquitous -- meaning that it can travel almost anywhere in biological systems (bodies, etc.) due to it's tiny mass and size.

    Due to these factors, plus its incredible power as a reducing agent or antioxidant, several authors have posited that the H- ion is "the" primal antioxidant, and the candidate most likely to effectively neutralize most common oxygen free radicals (aka reactive oxygen species, or ROS) both within and outside the body.  For all of the above cited reasons, the H- ion has sometimes been labeled the "Paleolithic Antioxidant", the "Neanderthal Antioxidant" and the "primeval Antioxidant".

    H- As An Antioxidant Nutritional Supplement

    Anyone consuming a significant quantity of fresh and raw plant or animal food of high quality and freshness will automatically consume a generous amount of H- ions, in the several different hydride storage forms.  Unfortunately, incidence of H- and of the compounds which can carry it (NADH, some antioxidants, certain vitamins, etc.)  is drastically reduced by heating, processing, milling, prolonged exposure to air or prolonged storage.

    Additionally, anyone consuming relatively fresh, and unheated and untreated (and unfiltered) water from any of the following sources may also consume a significant amount of H- ions:

    • high-altitude glacial runoff streams
    • high-altitude mountain wells and springs
    • some deep wells in relatively stable geological formations

    Intentional Supplementation

    There exist some people who deliberately ingest  H- as a nutritional supplement for the health benefits, primarily its advantages as a primal antioxidant or primeval antioxidant, and one with extremely low molecular weight and size, allowing it access to many and varied tissues and levels of biochemical activity.

    H-minus ion in foods

    Some folks decide to eliminate highly processed and heated foods from their diets, and instead, choose to incorporate large amounts of raw foods such as raw vegetative products (fruits, vegetables), and sometimes raw animal products (raw eggs, dairy, fish and meats) as well.  Some also choose to start drinking unprocessed and unfiltered water from natural deep aquifers.  The very act of switching to such a diet of raw, unprocessed foods drastically increases the availability of the H-minus ion in the daily intake.

    H-minus ion donor supplements in liquid form

    Water Ionizers
    The most ubiquitous supplemental source of the H-minus ion for the past 45 years in Japan and past 15 years in the USA has been so-called "alkaline ionized water", also known as "microwater", from kitchen countertop water ionizers.  This water is more accurately called electrolyzed reduced water (ERW); which is the naming convention which most commonly appears in articles in scientific literature to denote this water.  Such water, as produced at the cathodic pole via electrolysis in the water ionizers, does indeed exhibit an alkaline pH (poorly-buffered), but more importantly, it has an ORP of -150 (mildly reducing) to -850 (strongly reducing), indicating a high degree of reducing activity and strong presence of the H- ion.  This water from the cathode, or negative pole, of an ionizer, is often called "reduced water" due to its reducing, or antioxidant activity, and has been called "microwater" by some commercial vendors due to the fact that the water exhibits a smaller cluster size than "normal" water, due to the restructuring of the water from charge of the H- ions in their protective cages of water molecules.

    Click here for a link to a page on this site containing further information on household and commercial water ionizers and their use for producing electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) for home consumption.

    Click here for link to a page on this site which offers further notes on water ionizers (including filtration), and high strength electrolyzed reduced water. This informational article offers further notes on countertop water ionizers, filtration of water in the ionizers, and consumption of alkaline or reduced electrolyzed water, including consumption of ultra-strong electrolyzed reduced water with an ORP stronger than -550 mv., and, in some cases, with an ORP stronger than -800 mv. 

    For more information on using ORP as an  imprecise correlate for reducing (antioxidant) activity, see the on-site page entitled: ORP and Some Myths About Reducing/Antioxidant Activity

    H- donor supplements in powder and capsule form

    MegaH (aka MegaH-)™ Caplets
    For many years, a commercial product has also been available in powder and capsule form as a nutritional supplement.  This product is a unique silica hydride which stores the H- ion in a cage formed within a silica structure, and is marketed commercially under the names MegaH (aka MegaH-, aka Megahydrin)™, Active H- , and more rarely, Flanagan Hydrogen Enhanced Silica, or "FHES".   NMR spectromeric analysis has conclusively proven the existence of the hydride ion in this product.  This product was developed by scientist/inventor Patrick Flanagan, and the unique silica hydride mimics the way in which nature stores the H-ion in tiny rounded amorphous silica particles in glacial runoff streams from high-altitude glaciers.  Indeed, it has been theorized by more than one author that some of the excellent health and longevity exhibited by high mountain peoples (Villacambas, Hunzas) may be in part due to their ingestion  of this H-ion laden water (as well as to their primitive diet of unprocessed foods).  This silica-based product acts as a reservoir for the hydride ion, and releases it gradually over time after being exposed to water.  As such, it is able to store a much larger quantity of the H- ion in a given volume than can electrolyzed reduced water.  This offers the hydride ion in concentrated and gradual-release form, allowing easy transport while traveling, and eliminating the need for machinery and tubes to produce water containing the H- ion.

    There are some competing products on the market which claim to be successful imitators of  MegaH (aka MegaH-)™, and which claim to also contain "silica hydride" and the elusive H-minus ion, but this author and other researchers of his acquaintance have not seen any convincing evidence of  silica hydride in any of these competing products yet tested.  interestingly, non has been willing to subject their products to NMR analysis by an independent laboratory to qualify and quantify the presence of the hydride ion.  It appears that getting silica to hold the hydride ion in a stable form for later release when exposed to water is an extremely delicate and tricky task, and it appears that no one other than Patrick Flanagan has yet mastered this technique.  It is rather widely known in the world of clustered water research that researchers in Japan and other countries are rather desperately trying to find ways of storing the negative hydrogen ion in silica or other substances in order to make it bioavailable, if only for the tremendous financial incentive inherent in being able to market such a product to health-minded consumers.

    The H-minus Ion in Electrolyzed Reduced Water

    Why Does So-Called Alkaline Ionized Water Seem to Improve Health? 
    and Why Does So-Called Acidic Ionized Water Act As a Disinfectant?

    The manufacturers and vendors of most brands of water ionizers claim that the so-called "alkaline ionized water", or "alkaline water" from their water ionizers improves health in a number of ways, and most of them attribute this benefit rather vaguely to the alkalinity of the water and it's supposed effects in "alkalinizing" the body.  Some vendors go even further and claim that the alkaline water will provide abundant quantities of calcium and other "alkalinizing" minerals for the body.  Finally, a rare few sources claim that the beneficial bio-effects of this water are really due to the presence of the negative hydrogen ion.

    Likewise, many of the same vendors claim that the acid water from the ionizers has powerful disinfectant properties when used on skin, on plants and on surfaces to be cleaned, and most of them claim that this property is somehow due to the acidity of the water.  What is the reality?  Do alkaline water and acid water from ionizers really do what is claimed?  If so, how do they achieve those effects?  Click on the above on-site link to learn more!

    Click here for a link to a page on this site containing further information on household and commercial water ionizers and their use for producing electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) for home consumption.

    Click here for link to a page on this site which offers further notes on water ionizers (including  filtration), and high strength electrolyzed reduced water. This informational article offers further notes on countertop water ionizers, filtration of water in the ionizers, and consumption of alkaline or reduced electrolyzed water, including consumption of ultra-strong electrolyzed reduced water with an ORP stronger than -550 mv., and, in some cases, with an ORP stronger than -800 mv. 

    For more information on using ORP as an  imprecise correlate for reducing (antioxidant) activity, see the on-site page entitled: ORP and Some Myths About Reducing/Antioxidant Activity.

    If you want to get even more in-depth information on ERW and making it, especially in home-brew devices, than this page offers, I recommend first finishing this page, and then going to the on-site page entitled Some Thoughts and Observations on Production of H-minus Ion Enriched-Water by Electrolysis.

    Lastly, there are actually NUMEROUS other ways of creating H-minus ions in water, and without electricity/electrolysis, and often without the artificial corollary of high alkalinity as well.  These methods yield water commonly referred to as "reduced water", or RW.  However, many of these methods really cannot get the H-minus concentration to a place where the resultant ORP is much stronger than -300 mv.  There are a few that can go much further.  If you wish to know more about this topic, you may wish to check out my page on this site entitled Means and Methods of Modifying the ORP and Particularly, the Reducing Potential, of Water.

    For more information on using ORP as an imprecise correlate for reducing (antioxidant) activity, see the on-site page entitled: ORP and Some Myths About Reducing/Antioxidant Activity.

    Non-Electrolytic Means of Producing Reduced Water (RW)

    Now, a teaser: there are actually NUMEROUS other ways of creating H-minus ions in water, and without electricity/electrolysis, and often without the artificial corollary of high alkalinity as well.  These methods yield water commonly referred to as "reduced water", or RW.  However, many of these methods really cannot get the H-minus concentration to a place where the resultant ORP is much stronger than -300 mv.  There are a few that can go much further.

    Mixed Microbial Cultures Containing Phototrophic Organisms

    I have been able to take tap water, add a bit of molasses and a bit of a powerful microbial culture, mix them all in a cheap flimsy plastic gallon jug (the type in which spring water is sold), and within 26 hours the water will show an ORP of about -440, and, better yet (if you understand the implications of Nernst's Equation), at a pH of 4.3!  Indeed, the same jugs can yield water with an ORP stronger than -470 at a pH of 4.3 within 48 hours of filling and mixing.  Now, the reality is that this extremely powerful relative hydrogen score does not last for long -- the brew quickly evolves as the microbes convert most of the lighter-weight hydride antioxidants to more complex, higher molecular weight biochemical antioxidants, all of which are in raw live-food form.  This microbial inoculant culture I have been using has been proven by researchers to also produce a wide range of other powerful nutrients (for humans and animals) and antioxidants as well. 

    Relative Hydrogen Score, aka rH Score, an Absolute 
    Measure of Hydrogen Reducing Power Calculated
    from ORP and pH Measures

    For a brief tutorial on the Relative Hydrogen Score, or rH score, please see the on-site page devoted to that topic! rH score is an absolute measure of hydrogen reducing power (and of oxidizing power) which is independent of changes in pH, and which is calculated from measures of ORP and pH.

    It is my observation that the so-called species of "active hydrogen", when found in water, are also often linked to so-called ormus forms of various elements or to ormus-like energies. If you wish to read about a device which I have built which employs magnets and magnetite sand to apparently induce creation of ormus-type forms of elements in water, please check out my Ormus Water site at

    Detection of H-minus Ion

    Note: This section is evolving and more material will appear as time passes!

    Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) measured in millivolts (mv.) on a scale from -1,200 (most strongly reducing) to +1,200 (most strongly oxidizing).   A reading at or below approximately zero (0) strongly, although indirectly, indicates an increasing concentration of the negative hydrogen ion.  For example, a reading of -800 mv. would often indicate a strongly reducing solution, often with strong antioxidant properties, and could indicate the presence of large amounts of H-minus ions in the solution.  However, notice that this is a "sometimes" correlation which  does not always hold true in either direction.  Thus, a water solution of a compound with a strongly negative ORP may show no reducing and antioxidant activity, and a water solution (of certain compounds dissolved in the water) with  strong antioxidant (reducing) activity may show a modestly positive ORP.  Luckily, there are many ancillary tests available to quickly determine whether strong reducing activity is also present.

    For more on this topic, see the on-site page entitled: ORP and Some Myths About Reducing/Antioxidant Activity

    Ion selective electrodes (ISE)

    Antioxidant activity in vitro

    Electron detachment due to laser photoexcitation

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) -- this is rapidly evolving as the simplest, most robust and reliable, and most sure-fire method of detecting the presence of any species of the hydride ion at any and all energy levels or storage levels (hydride ions can be configured in any of several ways in water, silica and other compounds, allowing differing and discrete energy levels.)

    UV Spectrophotometry

    ESR (Electron Spin Resonance), related to NMR, above

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) , while it will not directly detect the H-minus ion, is often used to examine the structure of compounds which may act as functional hydrides to store the H-minus ion.

    Stability and Persistence of H- at Standard Temperature 
    and Pressure (e.g., our normal environment)

    Despite early beliefs in the field of inorganic chemistry that  H- would be exceedingly rare and exceedingly short-lived at standard temperatures and pressures (room temperature and pressure, or STP), it appears that H- can exist quite stably, usually in a protective cage or cluster in water in all three of its most common phases: liquid, vapor and ice.  When present in such a form, it usually reduces average cluster size of the  short-lived clusters which form in water, and may also prolong cluster mean half-life as well, due to the negative charge carried by the H- ion.  As we have seen above, H- can also form semi-permanent bonds with silica and other minerals in nature and in the laboratory as well.

    We have already established that H- is often called the primal antioxidant or primeval antioxidant due to its primitive structure, tiny size, tiny molecular weight, and the fact that it is able to be formed in purely physical or geological settings (e.g., no life forms present).  Was there a significant amount of H- in the primeval seas, or the so-called "primordial soup" in which life is theorized to have evolved on this planet?  The answer is an almost unequivoal "yes".  Due to the thinner atmosphere, absence of an ozone layer, and other charactersitics of the early atmosphere which would have allowed much higher incidence of cosmic rays, a more porous crust of the planet allowing faster and more voluminous diffusion of H and H- from the planet's core to the surface, along with frequent volcanic activity and high frequency of lightning, it is likely that the primitive sea (primeval sea) or primordial soup exhibited a high concentration of the H- ion, making it the intital and primal antioxidant in that milieu as well.

    Note: This section is still being written and will be expanded as time passes!

    Click here to go to the Links page for this site!

    For some quick links, also see below:

    From the viewpoint of living beings and their nutritional needs, the negative hydrogen ion is mainly found in nature as an antioxidant nutrient in raw, unprocessed foods and in  unprocessed water from certain wild sources.  The RawPaleoDiet website, at, is an educational site on the Raw Paleolithic Diet, a diet high in this primal antioxidant nutrient.  The site covers all aspects of raw foods diets which include raw animal foods, and includes a comprehensive overview of over 40 systems and books which promote such diets.  Includes a comparison of the most popular systems.

    Consortia of beneficial syntropic antioxidative microbes (SAM), and particularly SAM Type 4 consortia were mentioned several times on this site. Beneficial microbial consortia of this type are used worldwide and have found uses in a number of different fields and areas of human endeavors.  It is likely safe to say that the single largest areas of utility of these SAM Type 4 microbial consortia are in agriculture (and even moreso within the realms of organic farming and sustainable farming), bioremediation of soil and water, waste management and odor control. To learn more about syntropic antioxidative microbial consortia in the SAM Type 4 category, please feel free to visit

    For some highly effective tools and techniques for opening the heart, becoming more free, creating the life you want, and reaching greater spiritual freedom, please check out my HeartRelease website, at

    The Divine-Heart website, at, shares information about the heart-centered spiritual healing work of Vinny Pinto, the author of this site.  This healing work involves no contact (called "non-contact" or nonlocal) and is often done remotely.  It may seem odd that Vinny, who has trained as a scientist and researcher (and also as an electronics engineer and astrophysicist), and who is also a raw foods educator,  would also offer spiritual healing, but he also has a very strong training background in meditative disciplines, spiritual pursuits, acupuncture and energy healing.   However, he now offers non-contact (remote) spiritual healing, and feels that it is this work (even more than his research work or raw foods educational work) which most "makes his heart sing".

    To learn more about the author, or to contact the author, please click here !

    To learn more about Vinny, his informational websites and the various services which he offers, please feel free to check out the Vinny Pinto Home Base (Directory) website, at

    Commercially-available SAM Type 4-Fermented Antioxidant
    Nutritional Supplements for Humans

    There are now several fermented antioxidant nutritional supplement products (mostly liquid brews/beverages) brewed with SAM Type 4 microbial consortia available on the market, across the Western world, including the USA.  To learn more about such brews and vendors/producers, please see my syntropic antioxidative microbes (SAM) website.


    MegaHydrin™, MegaH and MegaH- are registered trademarks owned by Flantech Group.

    References -- Literature Citations

    will be added as time passes!
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